Beyond the Austerity Debate: the Deficit Bias in the post-Bretton Woods Era

2017-04-15T14:07:42-04:00May 21, 2012|

The growth versus austerity debate is detracting attention from policy issues that may seem less urgent, but which are nevertheless critical in the medium term. I am referring to what I would call the institutional gaps in fiscal policymaking that still exist in most advanced and emerging economies. These gaps have contributed to a bias in the conduct of fiscal policy in favor of deficits that is behind many of the current problems.

Reserve Currencies in the Post-Crisis International Monetary System

2017-04-15T14:51:44-04:00September 24, 2009|

By Reza Moghadam

The dollar has been the cornerstone of the international monetary system since the Second World War. It is the most important reserve currency, accounting for at least two-thirds of reserve assets, according to the IMF’s Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves database. Among central banks that do not report this information to the IMF, it is estimated (e.g. by Brad Setser) that 70 percent is held in dollar assets.

The bulk of foreign exchange transactions involve dollars, and significantly more trade gets settled in dollars than involves the United States. Goldberg and Tille examined 23 advanced and emerging economies in Asia and Europe and found that all settled a greater proportion of their trade in dollars than their trade with the United States. The divergence was particularly stark for emerging Asia, where trade with the United States only accounted for about 20 percent of total trade but the bulk of total trade was settled in dollars. ( “Vehicle Currency Use in International Trade,”  Journal of International Economics, Issue 76, Vol. 2, pp. 177-192, December 2008).

The recent crisis has prompted an abundance of commentary on the future of the international monetary system and potential alternative reserve […]

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