Joana Pereira is an economist in the IMF’s European Department, working with the team responsible for the macroeconomic surveillance of Germany. She has previously worked in the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs and Western Hemisphere departments. Prior to joining the IMF, Ms. Pereira was a researcher at Erasmus University, Rotterdam. At the IMF, she has conducted research on a number of issues, including labor markets, social security, fiscal frameworks, fiscal multipliers, and intergovernmental relations in federations. She holds a Ph.D. in Economics from the European University Institute and an Economics degree from Nova University, Lisbon.